‘Penalised’ In Primary, Privileged In University: East Africa Education Spending

August 21, 2016

WITH the youngest demographic profile in the world, African governments are doing well to invest a significant amount of resources in the education sector.

Universal primary education became a priority in the past decade and a half, driven by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and progress on this front has been laudable. There has also been significant progress in expanding access to secondary and tertiary education.

But the education spending disparity through the levels raises some questions. In East Africa, for example, governments spend an average of $57 per primary school pupil, and $127 per secondary school student.

At tertiary level education spending is more than ten times higher, at a mean of $1,493 per student, but even this masks huge disparities among countries – Tanzania is the clear outlier, spending an average $4,391 per university/college student.

The inequity in resource allocation is clearer when you consider that it is just a tiny minority of people who make it to higher levels of education in the first place. It East Africa, it is only about 5-7% of the six and seven-year-olds eligible for the first grade of primary school in any year that will eventually graduate from university.

Such dismal transition rates means that it is actually those in the lower grades of education – the bulk of the children in the school system – who are ‘penalised’ by low government spending.

And considering that it is generally those from wealthier backgrounds who will go to college and university, the impact on inequality becomes clearer.


Or as a recent report by the Society for International Development puts it this way: should countries that are unable to provide every child with a quality primary education cover the bulk of costs for students at the tertiary level (which is also the most expensive), considering that they will, for the larger part, come from more privileged backgrounds?

Even worse, data from the Inter-University Council for East Africa (IUCEA) concluded that on average, 56% of students graduating from East African universities lacked the basic and technical skills needed in the job market.

When broken down per student, it emerges that a large chunk of public investment is spent on the tertiary sector, it is worth interrogating what value for money citizens are getting in this respect.

Source: http://www.africapedia.com/2016/08/21/education-spending-east-africa/

New technology in buliisa, uganda!

By Simon Kaheru
A FEW days ago I received a short video clip via WhatsApp that I inadvertently opened almost as soon as it arrived. Normally I let these videos pile up till I have enough time to watch and delete them in a pile.
I was very pleased with this one. In the clip, a young fellow was manipulating a ‘wire car’. I put the phrase in quotes because when we were children we had a knack for finding bits of loose metallic wires either from clothes hangers (discarded or stolen) or broken up bits of fencing material, and we made wire cars.
There was always one boy in the neighbourhood who taught the rest of us and kept making modifications every so often without explaining where he had learnt them.
The first wire cars we made used ‘chokolos’ (soda bottle tops – I still don’t know why they were called that) for wheels and we had to squat to push them along. The upgraded wheels were cut out of bits of sapatu (rubber or foam slippers), then the ones above those had chokolo rims inserted into the rubber or foam sapatu.
The next level of tyres were made of metallic wire rims and had rubber tyres made from strips cut from the rubber inners of actual car tyres, wrapped around cuttings of buveera for the off-road variety.
It took us about an hour to fashion a good car complete with steering wheels to drive it as you walked along, axles and even side mirrors and number plates if the materials were available.
In my case that was thirty years before what I saw in this WhatsApp video.
The teenager in the video was operating a ‘wire car’ that was a fully operational excavator! Standing at one end of the truck, he actually had a boom arm lifting the soil carrying bucket an the other end, and drove it round picking and dropping soil!
The amazed onlookers made various exclamations in Runyoro and Luganda, proving its authenticity, and one fellow in overalls walked round the young technician to marvel at his creation.
Eno yagikola nga tatunulidde bu lad bwo!” (He made this without looking at your instructions/manual/readings!) exclaimed one fellow.
The commentators even knew the parts of the excavator such as the “boom” and “circle drive” (I had to google to learn them).
“New technology in Ngwedo, Buliisa!” another declared, before my favourite by one who was as overwhelmed as I was: “Eh! I love Uganda, allo!”
I can only guess that the young man had probably spent time observing some road construction for a while and worked out a way of replicating the truck.
Sadly, I am not sure if there is a village called Ngwedo (thats what it sounded like) in Buliisa, and whereas I will ask people at the district to find the young fellow, I fear success may be limited.
This is the type of chap that needs to be located, nurtured and supported to take his technical prowess to a level of global commercial proportions. Not only could he set up an entire industry of local toy manufacturing, if a wise entrepreneur funded him, but perhaps he could enhance technical education by becoming a trainer (NOT a student) at our institutions.
The automatic steps some would take would be to place him into a school or university, but without proper planning there is a high chance that his creativity and innovation would be stifled there.
How else can you explain the existence of so many qualified Engineers, some with Masters Degrees and Doctorates, with so few wire truck excavators of this nature?
In fact, this chap would most likely be the type to create a host of technical solutions in agriculture, manufacturing…you name it!
Simply by observing and trying things out.
And rather than pick him up and out of his village in Buliisa, we (you, me, an entrepreneur, a university, the government…) should pick up from people like Emmanuel Angoda and implement what he is seeking Ushs65million for.
Emmanuel Angoda is a teacher of ICT who has been at work in Lira Town College for the last five years teaching, training and mentoring young people in his chosen field of ICT.
I have not spoken with him yet but find him heroic for many reasons: over the years I have noticed his name popping up quite humbly in professionally elevated circles because of his noble work. His students have won Awards at the Annual Communication Innovation Awards, they have stood out during ICT and Academic events and also Science Fairs.
This week, he sent out an email unveiling his dream of setting up an ICT innovation hub in Lira Town, called Walktrack Innovation Hub, in which his partners are some of the said students. The cost of setting up that dream is only Ushs65million. That is 1,000 times less than the cost of tarmacking one kilometre of road, which process probably spurred the innovation of the Buliisa technician.
Seriously, people, read his blogpost here: https://angodaemma.wordpress.com/
If we had a hub like Angoda’s in every district, imagine how many times we would hear the exclamation, “I love Uganda, allo!”
This article is available online at: https://skaheru.com/2016/06/

Walktrack Innovation Hub

I been very active in tech circles in Uganda for five years. This whole time I have been serving as at Lira Town College as a teacher(ICT), a fact that has no doubt made me appreciate the importance of education. I have seen parents sacrifice a lot for the education of their children. I have seen education remove barriers between the rich and the poor. I have seen my students rise up to challenge students from Makerere College School, Budo and Ntare, despite their different educational settings.

It is this desire to see my students succeed that gives me strength to pursue higher ambitions. I have hatched a plan to set up and innovation hub in Lira. We’ve had “hubs” in Kampala and we need one in Lira, except that we shall have a different approach. I want it to serve as a transition point between high school and campus. I want to partake in nurturing tomorrows tech leaders. I want to serve my community, and my country.

Over the years, my students have gone ahead to pursue Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Technology and other tech courses. It is ironical but again fulfilling to know that they draw their inspiration from me, while I also give the same inspiration. I do not want these efforts go to waste. Technology is now with us, and will very much be here with us in the future.

The road to it will to tough and to torturous, but we are determined to have Walktrack Innovation Hub. Download our proposal here: Walktrack Innovation Hub 2016

East African unions unite against scourge of education privatisation

Leaders of Education International affiliate organisations in East Africa gathered in Kampala, Uganda, to coordinate their response to the growing commercialisation and privatisation of education spreading across the continent.

The union leaders of Education International (EI) affiliates from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zanzibar shared their national experiences and developed a deeper understanding of EI’s Global Response to the growing commercialisation and privatisation of education. The meeting was held on 15-16 May in Kampala, and was sponsored by the Danish Union of Teachers (DLF).

National campaigns

The participants concluded that the commercialisation and privatisation of education is the greatest threat to the realisation of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4: “inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. They pledged to return home with a renewed determination to develop and implement national campaigns aimed at exposing and reversing government policies which allow, facilitate and encourage commercialisation and privatisation of education.  A key objective of these national campaign plans will be to ensure that governments implement and enforce a legislative framework necessary to protect and advance the right of all students to free quality public education.

KNUT: Inequity of privatisation

“Privatisation is a cancer that must be removed from Africa,” said Wilson Sossion, General Secretary of the Kenya National Union of Teachers (KNUT) and President of EI’s Africa Regional Committee. “It represents an affront to the rights of children. It will drive and deepen inequity.”

UNATU: Commercialisation a ‘virus’

These views were echoed by Juliet Wajega, Deputy General Secretary of the Uganda National Teachers’ Union (UNATU). She said commercialisation of education is a “virus” that is consuming education in Uganda and it is hindering the achievement of SDG 4, a prerequisite to achievement of all the SDG goals.  “As teacher unions, we must mobilise to encircle and paralyse this virus until we exterminate it.”

TTU: Build alliances

Yahaya Msulwa, General Secretary of Tanzania Teachers’ Union (TTU), recognised the size of the challenge and the influence of large global actors driving the commercialisation of education. He reminded leaders that they must build alliances with like-minded education stakeholders and national labour centres to strengthen their ability to lobby successfully in support of quality free public education for all.

ZATU: Underfunding of public education

Discussions also focused on the need for governments to fulfil their obligation to properly and adequately fund public education. In far too many instances, public schools are being starved of the resources they need to pave the way for privatisation. Daud Mussa Tafurwa Omar, General Secretary of the Zanzibar Teachers’ Union (ZATU), said: “The problem is public education is underfunded.  Consequently, there is poor infrastructure and a lack of teaching and learning materials in school. There is an insufficient number of teachers.”

Lack of political will

The union leaders rejected as hollow claims about a financing gap when it comes to funding quality education for all. Instead, they identified a lack of political will as the issue. They were appalled to learn that new statistics released by Oxfam International show that more money leaves Africa illegally than all the aid provided.

Angelo Gavrielatos, programme director for the Global Response underlined that tax loopholes and tax havens must be closed. “The international community must act to end this scourge which is denying Africa’s children the resources they need and deserve,” he said. Tax avoidance is depleting Africa of the revenue base required to ensure every child receives access to quality public education.

Article adapted from: https://www.ei-ie.org/en/news/news_details/3963

The people I look forward to

In Uganda today, many people seem to be disillusioned and living without hope. Many are toiling to daily bread in whichever means they can get it. The result is many dubious stories are ever present in our dailies every other day. Politics, corruption, ritual sacrifice, accidents, land slides, exams cheating and so on.

However, I have many people within Uganda who have risen above these circumstances and have many positive strides in my life. I look forward to them. They give me hope – hope that anyone can still make it big in Uganda. With good education, smart choices  and modest ethics, it is possible to be successful. Below are some of people who have provided me with lots of inspiration.

Charles Onyango Obbo: Currently working with Mail & Guardian in Nairobi, Kenya, Charles is a veteran journalist and media personality in Uganda. While working with Monitor in early 1990s, the man wrote very captivating stories, so much so that I developed much interest in Literature. In fact even now, I still look forward to Charles articles every Wednesday on Daily Monitor. His writings are just so insightful and refreshing for me.

Others include: Dr. Benedict Oyo of Gulu University,  Andrew M. Mwenda, CEO of the Independent Magazine. I will elaborate how they inspired later here.